Maxim Shevtsov, Stefan Stangl, Boris Nikolaev, Ludmila Yakovleva, Yaroslav Marchenko, Ruslana Tagaeva, Wolfgang Sievert, Emil Pitkin, Anton Mazur, Peter Tolstoy, Oleg Galibin, Vyacheslav Ryzhov, Katja Steiger, Oleg Smirnov, William Khachatryan, Kerry Chester, Gabriele Multhoff, Granzyme B Functionalized Nanoparticles Targeting Membrane Hsp70‐Positive Tumors for Multimodal Cancer Theranostics, Small, V. 15, P. 1900205, 2019. DOI: 10.1002/smll.201900205.
Functionalized superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) have emerged as potential clinical tools for cancer theranostics. Membrane‐bound 70 kDa heat shock protein (mHsp70) is ubiquitously expressed on the cell membrane of various tumor types but not normal cells and therefore provides a tumor‐specific target. The serine protease granzyme B (GrB) that is produced as an effector molecule by activated T and NK cells has been shown to specifically target mHsp70 on tumor cells. Following binding to Hsp70, GrB is rapidly internalized into tumor cells. Herein, it is demonstrated that GrB functionalized SPIONs act as a contrast enhancement agent for magnetic resonance imaging and induce specific tumor cell apoptosis. Combinatorial regimens employing stereotactic radiotherapy and/or magnetic targeting are found to further enhance the therapeutic efficacy of GrB‐SPIONs in different tumor mouse models.